In cases of threats to bodily well being the standard depends on the probability that an injury will actually occur. Even so, depending upon a survey's participants, about 5 to 25 percent of the US population show affinity to the subject.
The consent and compliance for a sadomasochistic situation can be granted only by people who can judge the potential results. For their consent, they must have relevant information extent to which the scene will go, potential risks, if a safeword will be used, what that is, and so on at hand and the necessary mental capacity to judge. The resulting consent and understanding is occasionally summarized in a written " contract ", which is an agreement of what can and cannot take place.
In general, BDSM play is usually structured such that it is possible for the consenting partner to withdraw his or her consent at any point during a scene;  for example, by using a safeword that was agreed on in advance. Failure to honor a safeword is considered serious misconduct and could even change the sexual consent situation into a crime, depending on the relevant law,  since the bottom or top has explicitly revoked his or her consent to any actions that follow the use of the safeword see Legal status.
For other scenes, particularly in established relationships, a safeword may be agreed to signify a warning "this is getting too intense" rather than explicit withdrawal of consent; and a few choose not to use a safeword at all. This model for differentiating among these aspects of BDSM is increasingly used in literature today. Individual tastes and preferences in the area of human sexuality may overlap among these areas, which are discussed separately here.
Bondage and discipline are two aspects of BDSM that do not seem to relate to each other because of the type of activities involved, but they have conceptual similarities, and that is why they appear jointly. The term bondage describes the practice of physical restraint. Bondage is usually, but not always, a sexual practice. Bondage can also be achieved by spreading the appendages and fastening them with chains or ropes to a St. Andrew's cross or spreader bars.
The term discipline describes psychological restraining, with the use of rules and punishment to control overt behavior. Another aspect is the structured training of the bottom. It explores the more mental aspect of BDSM. This is also the case in many relationships not considering themselves as sadomasochistic; it is considered to be a part of BDSM if it is practiced purposefully.
The range of its individual characteristics is thereby wide. Often, " contracts " are set out in writing to record the formal consent of the parties to the power exchange, stating their common vision of the relationship dynamic.
Such documents have not been recognized as being legally binding, nor are they intended to be. These agreements are binding in the sense that the parties have the expectation that the negotiated rules will be followed.
Often other friends and community members may witness the signing of such a document in a ceremony, and so parties violating their agreement can result in loss of face, respect or status with their friends in the community. In general, as compared to conventional relationships, BDSM participants go to great lengths to negotiate the important aspects of their relationships in advance, and to take great care in learning about and following safe practices.
The term sadomasochism is derived from the words sadism and masochism. These terms differ somewhat from the same terms used in psychology, since those require that the sadism or masochism cause significant distress or involve non-consenting partners. Sadism describes sexual pleasure derived by inflicting pain , degradation, humiliation on another person or causing another person to suffer.
On the other hand, the masochist enjoys being hurt, humiliated, or suffering within the consensual scenario. The terms sadism and masochism are derived from the names of the Marquis de Sade and Leopold von Sacher-Masoch , based on the content of the authors' works. Although the names of de Sade and Sacher-Masoch are attached to the terms sadism and masochism respectively, the scenes described in de Sade's works do not meet modern BDSM standards of informed consent.
The concepts presented by de Sade are not in accordance with the BDSM culture, even though they are sadistic in nature. With his work the originally theological terms "perversion", "aberration" and "deviation" became part of the scientific terminology for the first time. In , Sigmund Freud described "sadism" and "masochism" in his Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality as diseases developing from an incorrect development of the child psyche and laid the groundwork for the scientific perspective on the subject in the following decades.
This led to the first time use of the compound term sado-masochism German sado-masochismus by the Viennese psychoanalytic Isidor Isaak Sadger in their work, Über den sado-masochistischen Komplex "Regarding the sadomasochistic complex" in In the later 20th century, BDSM activists have protested against these conceptual models, as they were derived from the philosophies of two singular historical figures.
Both Freud and Krafft-Ebing were psychiatrists; their observations on sadism and masochism were dependent on psychiatric patients, and their models were built on the assumption of psychopathology. Advocates of BDSM [ who? On a physical level, BDSM is commonly misconceived to be "all about pain".
Many BDSM activities might not involve any kind of pain or humiliation, but just the exchange of power and control. Some use the term "body stress" to describe this physiological sensation. The philosopher Edmund Burke defines this sensation of pleasure derived from pain by the word sublime. There is a wide array of BDSM practitioners who take part in sessions for which they do not receive any personal gratification. They enter such situations solely with the intention to allow their partners to fulfill their own needs or fetishes.
Professional dominants do this in exchange of money for the session activities, but non-professionals do it for the sake of their partners. In some BDSM sessions, the top exposes the bottom to a wide range of sensual experiences, for example: The repertoire of possible "toys" is limited only by the imagination of both partners. To some extent, everyday items like clothes-pins , wooden spoons or plastic wrap are used as pervertables.
Trust and sexual arousal help the partners enter a shared mindset. Aside from the general advice related to safe sex , BDSM sessions often require a wider array of safety precautions than vanilla sex sexual behaviour without BDSM elements. In practice, pick-up scenes at clubs or parties may sometimes be low in negotiation much as pick-up sex from singles bars may not involve much negotiation or disclosure.
These negotiations concern the interests and fantasies of each partner and establish a framework of both acceptable and unacceptable activities. Safewords are words or phrases that are called out when things are either not going as planned or have crossed a threshold one cannot handle. They are something both parties can remember and recognize and are, by definition, not words commonly used playfully during any kind of scene.
Words such as no , stop , and don't , are often inappropriate as a safeword if the roleplaying aspect includes the illusion of non-consent. The most commonly used safewords are red and yellow , with red meaning that play must stop immediately, and yellow meaning that the activity needs to slow down. BDSM participants are expected to understand practical safety aspects.
For instance, they are expected to recognize that parts of the body can be damaged, such as nerves and blood vessels by contusion , or that skin that can be scarred. Using crops, whips, or floggers , the top's fine motor skills and anatomical knowledge can make the difference between a satisfying session for the bottom and a highly unpleasant experience that may even entail severe physical harm. It is necessary to be able to identify each person's psychological " squicks " or triggers in advance to avoid them.
Such losses of emotional balance due to sensory or emotional overload are a fairly commonly discussed issue. It is important to follow participants' reactions empathetically and continue or stop accordingly. Safewords are one way for BDSM practices to protect both parties. However, partners should be aware of each other's psychological states and behaviors to prevent instances where the "freakouts" prevent the use of safewords.
At one end of the spectrum are those who are indifferent to, or even reject physical stimulation. At the other end of the spectrum are bottoms who enjoy discipline and erotic humiliation but are not willing to be subordinate to the person who applies it. The bottom is frequently the partner who specifies the basic conditions of the session and gives instructions, directly or indirectly, in the negotiation, while the top often respects this guidance.
Other bottoms often called "brats" try to incur punishment from their tops by provoking them or "misbehaving". Nevertheless, a purist "school" exists within the BDSM community, which regards such "topping from the bottom" as rude or even incompatible with the standards of BDSM relations.
BDSM practitioners sometimes regard the practice of BDSM in their sex life as roleplaying and so often use the terms "play" and "playing" to describe activities where in their roles. Play of this sort for a specified period of time is often called a "session", and the contents and the circumstances of play are often referred to as the "scene". It is also common in personal relationships to use the term "kink play" for BDSM activities, or more specific terms for the type of activity.
The relationships can be of varied types. Early writings on BDSM both by the academic and BDSM community spoke little of long-term relationships with some in the gay leather community suggesting short-term play relationships to be the only feasible relationship models, and recommending people to get married and "play" with BDSM outside of marriage.
A study, the first to look at these relationships, fully demonstrated that "quality long-term functioning relationships" exist among practitioners of BDSM, with either sex being the top or bottom homosexual couples were not looked at. Amongst the respondents, it was typically the bottoms who wanted to play harder, and be more restricted into their roles when there was a difference in desire to play in the relationship.
Many of those engaged in long-term BDSM relationships learned their skills from larger BDSM organizations and communities  There was a lot of discussion by the respondents on the amount of control the top possessed in the relationships with almost non-existent discussion of the top "being better, or smarter, or of more value" than the bottom. The respondents valued themselves, their partners, and their relationships.
All couples expressed considerable goodwill toward their partners. The power exchange between the cohorts appears to be serving purposes beyond any sexual satisfaction, including experiencing a sense of being taken care of and bonding with a partner.
The study further goes on to list three aspects that made the successful relationships work: A professional dominatrix or professional dominant , often referred to within the culture as a "pro-dom me ", offers services encompassing the range of bondage, discipline, and dominance in exchange for money.
The term "dominatrix" is little-used within the non-professional BDSM scene. A non-professional dominant woman is more commonly referred to simply as a "domme", "dominant", or " femdom " short for female dominance. There are also services provided by professional female submissives "pro-subs".
A professional submissive consents to her client's dominant behavior within negotiated limits, and often works within a professional dungeon. Professional submissives , although far more rare, do exist. However it is much more rare to find a male in this profession. A male "pro-dom" typically only works with male clientele.
A BDSM activity can, but need not, involve sexual activity or sexual roleplay. A characteristic of many BDSM relationships is the power exchange from the bottom to the dominant partner, and bondage features prominently in BDSM scenes and sexual roleplay. Thus someone who is on 'the Scene', and prepared to play in public, might take part in 'a scene' at a public play party.
BDSM elements may involve settings of slave training or punishment for breaches of instructions. A scene can also take place in a club, where the play can be viewed by others. When a scene takes place in a public setting, it may be because the participants enjoy being watched by others, or because of the equipment available, or because having third parties present adds safety for play partners who have only recently met.
Standard social etiquette rules still apply when at a BDSM event, such as not intimately touching someone you do not know, not touching someone else's belongings including toys , and abiding by dress codes. A specific scene takes place within the general conventions and etiquette of BDSM, such as requirements for mutual consent and agreement as to the limits of any BDSM activity. This agreement can be incorporated into a formal contract.
In addition, most clubs have additional rules which regulate how onlookers may interact with the actual participants in a scene. BDSM play parties are events in which BDSM practitioners and other similarly interested people meet in order to communicate, share experiences and knowledge, and to "play" in an erotic atmosphere. The requirement for such dress codes differ. While some events have none, others have a policy in order to create a more coherent atmosphere and to prevent onlookers from taking part.
At these parties, BDSM can be publicly performed on a stage, or more privately in separate "dungeons". Andrew's crosses or similar restraining constructs , spanking benches, and punishing supports or cages are often made available. The problem of noise disturbance is also lessened at these events, while in the home setting many BDSM activities can be limited by this factor. In addition, such parties offer both exhibitionists and voyeurs a forum to indulge their inclinations without social criticism.
Sexual intercourse is not permitted within most public BDSM play spaces or not often seen in others, because it is not the emphasis of this kind of play. In order to ensure the maximum safety and comfort for the participants certain standards of behavior have evolved; these include aspects of courtesy , privacy , respect and safewords. This scene appears particularly on the Internet, in publications, and in meetings such as at fetish clubs like Torture Garden , SM parties, gatherings called munches , and erotic fairs like Venus Berlin.
The weekend long festivities include a wide range of sadomasochistic erotica in a public clothing optional space between 8th and 13th streets with nightly parties associated with the organization.
There are also conventions such as Living in Leather and Black Rose. It has often been assumed that a preference for BDSM is a consequence of childhood abuse. Research indicates that there is no evidence for this claim.
There is also a link between transgender individuals who have been abused and violence occurring in BDSM activities . For some, taking on a role of compliance or helplessness offers a form of therapeutic escape; from the stresses of life, from responsibility, or from guilt.
For others, being under the power of a strong, controlling presence may evoke the feelings of safety and protection associated with childhood.
They likewise may derive satisfaction from earning the approval of that figure see: A sadist, on the other hand, may enjoy the feeling of power and authority that comes from playing the dominant role, or receive pleasure vicariously through the suffering of the masochist. It is poorly understood, though, what ultimately connects these emotional experiences to sexual gratification, or how that connection initially forms.
It's a problem only if it is getting that individual into difficulties, if he or she is not happy with it, or it's causing problems in their personal or professional lives. If it's not, I'm not seeing that as a problem.
But assuming that it did, what I would wonder about is what is his or her biology that would cause a tendency toward a problem, and dynamically, what were the experiences this individual had that led him or her toward one of the ends of the spectrum. It is agreed on by some psychologists that experiences during early sexual development can have a profound effect on the character of sexuality later in life. Sadomasochistic desires, however, seem to form at a variety of ages.
Some individuals report having had them before puberty, while others do not discover them until well into adulthood. The prevalence of sadomasochism within the general population is unknown.
Despite female sadists being less visible than males, some surveys have resulted in comparable amounts of sadistic fantasies between females and males. Following a phenomenological study of nine individuals involved in sexual masochistic sessions who regarded pain as central to their experience,  sexual masochism was described as an addiction-like tendency, with several features resembling that of drug addiction: It was also demonstrated how the first masochistic experience is placed on a pedestal, with subsequent use aiming at retrieving this lost sensation, much as described in the descriptive literature on addiction.
The addictive pattern presented in this study suggests an association with behavioral spin as found in problem gamblers. BDSM is practiced in all social strata and is common in both heterosexual and homosexual men and women in varied occurrences and intensities. Estimation on the overall percentage of BDSM related sexual behaviour vary but it is no longer [ when? A representative study done from to in Australia found that 1.
Of the entire sample, 1. BDSM activity was significantly more likely among bisexuals and homosexuals of both sexes. But among men in general, there was no relationship effect of age, education, language spoken at home, or relationship status. Among women, in this study, activity was most common for those between 16 and 19 years of age and least likely for females over 50 years.
Activity was also significantly more likely for women who had a regular partner they did not live with, but was not significantly related with speaking a language other than English or education. Thus both black leather clothing, sexual jewellery such as chains and dominance roleplay appear increasingly outside of BDSM contexts.
Reflecting changes in social norms , modern medical opinion is now moving away from regarding BDSM activities as medical disorders, unless they are nonconsensual or involve significant distress or harm. Section F65 of the current revision, ICD , indicates that "mild degrees of sadomasochistic stimulation are commonly used to enhance otherwise normal sexual activity".
The diagnostic guidelines for the ICD state that this class of diagnosis should only be made "if sadomasochistic activity is the most important source of stimulation or necessary for sexual gratification".
This was followed by Sweden in , Norway in and Finland The population with related fantasies is believed to be even larger. The ICD is in the process of revision, and recent drafts have reflected these changes in social norms. Some people who feel attracted by the situations usually compiled under the term BDSM reach a point where they decide to come out of the closet , though many sadomasochists keep themselves closeted.
Even so, depending upon a survey's participants, about 5 to 25 percent of the US population show affinity to the subject. Public knowledge of one's BDSM lifestyle can have devastating vocational and social effects for sadomasochists.
Many face severe professional consequences  or social rejection if they are exposed, either voluntarily or involuntarily, as sadomasochists. Within feminist circles the discussion has been split roughly into two camps: Some feminists have criticized BDSM for eroticizing power and violence, and for reinforcing misogyny. They argue that women who engage in BDSM are making a choice that is ultimately bad for women. They also state that the main point of feminism is to give an individual woman free choices in her life; which includes her sexual desire.
While some feminists suggest connections between consensual BDSM scenes and non-consensual rape and sexual assault , other sex-positive ones find the notion insulting to women. It is often mentioned that in BDSM, roles are not fixed to gender , but personal preferences. Finally, some people switch , taking either a dominant or submissive role on different occasions.
Several studies investigating the possibility of correlation between BDSM pornography and the violence against women also indicate a lack of correlation. As an example, Japan is listed as the country with the lowest sexual crime rate out of all the industrialized nations, despite being known for its distinct BDSM and bondage pornography see Pornography in Japan.
In , the media coverage of Jack McGeorge showed that simply participating and working in BDSM support groups poses risks to one's job, even in countries where no law restricts it. Nevertheless, it leads to a difficult psychological situation in which the person concerned can be exposed to high levels of emotional stress. In the stages of "self awareness", he or she realizes their desires related to BDSM scenarios or decides to be open for such.
Some authors call this internal coming-out. Two separate surveys on this topic independently came to the conclusion that 58 percent and 67 percent of the sample respectively, had realized their disposition before their 19th birthday. Other surveys on this topic show comparable results. While homosexuals have created support networks in the last decades, sadomasochistic support networks are just starting to develop in most countries. In German speaking countries they are only moderately more developed.
In the US Kink Aware Professionals KAP a privately funded, non-profit service provides the community with referrals to psychotherapeutic, medical, and legal professionals who are knowledgeable about and sensitive to the BDSM, fetish, and leather community. The German Bundesvereinigung Sadomasochismus is committed to the same aim of providing information and driving press relations.
In the website and mailing list Datenschlag went online in German and English providing the largest bibliography , as well as one of the most extensive historical collections of sources related to BDSM. They were, however, not any more likely to have been coerced, unhappy, anxious, or experiencing sexual difficulties.
On the contrary, men who had engaged in BDSM scored lower on a psychological distress scale than men who did not. There have been few studies on the psychological aspects of BDSM using modern scientific standards. Psychotherapist Charles Moser has said there is no evidence for the theory that BDSM has common symptoms or any common psychopathology, emphasizing that there is no evidence that BDSM practitioners have any special psychiatric other problems based on their sexual preferences.
Problems do sometimes occur in the area of self classification by the person concerned. During the phase of the "coming-out", self-questioning related to one's own "normality" is quite common.
This, combined with the fear of discrimination in everyday life, leads in some cases to a double life which can be highly burdensome. At the same time, the denial of BDSM preferences can induce stress and dissatisfaction with one's own "vanilla"-lifestyle, feeding the apprehension of finding no partner. The wish to remove BDSM preferences is another possible reason for psychological problems since it is not possible in most cases.
Finally, the scientist states that BDSM practitioners seldom commit violent crimes. Moser's study comes to the conclusion that there is no scientific evidence, which could give reason to refuse members of this group work- or safety certificates, adoption possibilities, custody or other social rights or privileges.
The Swiss psychoanalyst Fritz Morgenthaler shares a similar perspective in his book, Homosexuality, Heterosexuality, Perversion He states that possible problems result not necessarily from the non-normative behavior, but in most cases primarily from the real or feared reactions of the social environment towards their own preferences. Moser's results are further supported by a Australian study by Richters et al. The study found that BDSM practitioners were no more likely to have experienced sexual assault than the control group, and were not more likely to feel unhappy or anxious.
The BDSM males reported higher levels of psychological well-being than the controls. It was concluded that "BDSM is simply a sexual interest or subculture attractive to a minority, not a pathological symptom of past abuse or difficulty with 'normal' sex. Several recent studies have been conducted on the gender differences and personality traits of BDSM practitioners. They concluded that "men more often display an engagement in dominant practices, whereas females take on the submissive part.
One common belief of BDSM and kink is that women are more likely to take on masochistic roles than men. Roy Baumeister actually had more male masochists in his study than female, and fewer male dominants than female. The lack of statistical significance in these gender differences suggests that no assumptions should be made regarding gender and masochistic roles in BDSM.
One explanation why we might think otherwise lies in our social and cultural ideals about femininity ; masochism may emphasize certain stereotypically feminine elements through activities like feminization of men and ultra-feminine clothing for women. But such tendencies of the submissive masochistic role should not be interpreted as a connection between it and the stereotypical female role—many masochistic scripts do not include any of these tendencies.
Baumeister found that masochistic males experienced greater: Trends also suggested that male masochism included more bondage and oral sex than female though the data was not significant. Artist of the month Berry Gordy Jr. Songs In The Key of Life? Check that list Career highlight: One of them, Berry Jr. Then he is drafted.
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